عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The issue of sex-change and its acceptability or non-acceptability has always been raised in the Islamic jurisprudence. The Christian religion and the non-Shiite sect of Islam have taken it as inviolable. They have regarded respecting the alternations in the God’s creatures as the main reason for such sanctity. They maintain that sex-change is a sort of alteration in the “law of creation” and a satanic act and consequently it is illegal and unlawful. In contrast, the Shiite sect of Islam believes in the permissibility and non-sanctity of the sex-change. They have considered several reasons for such a permissibility including the principle of Ebahe, the principle of Javaz, and the jurisprudence rules of Ezterar and Nafye osro haraj.
Someone who transforms his or her gender should be given a new identification certificate in accordance with his or her new identity. The socio-cultural consequences of the sex-change should also be taken into account. For example, in Iran, if the president changes his sex and becomes a female, he immediately will be deprived of his position since according to the article 114 of the constitution, “the president should be chosen from among the political or religious men and directors and needs to be competent”.It is also true for the judges, the leaders of the prayers, etc. which are especially for men and women cannot obtain such job opportunities.
On the other hand, sex-change dissolves (annuls) the marriage contract since it leads to continuation of pairing among two persons of similar gender. The sex-change, roughly speaking, has no influence on the bride’s marriage portion since the wife will possess it as soon as the marriage contract takes place. The other edicts such as Edeh, Heyz, and Nafas are the writs which are especially for the women. Consequently, sex-change results in deprivation from Edeh. Sex change also deprives the women from the alimony in the enduring marriage contract. In the shot-term marriage, if the alimony has been stipulated as a condition, sex-change results in its deprivation. Sex-change has no influence on the payment of children’s’ portion. The sex-change of father does not takes away his guardianship upon the children. In addition, the mother’s sex-change cannot bestow the right of guardianship to the mother. Sex-change, also, does not cut off the family relationships and titles but it merely changes the family relationships titles and the very close kinship among the family members persists. Regarding the share of an inheritance of a sex-changed person, his or her existing gender will be taken into consideration. In other words, the gender of the heir at the time of the heiress death will be taken as a criterion for action. The sex-change of parents has no influence on the extent of their share of inheritance from their children. The sex-change has no effect on a person’s civil authorities. However, it is influential in some of his or her penal authorities. Although the sex-change does not take away a person’s penal authorities, his or her existing gender will be taken into consideration for punishment enforcement.
The resumption of father from Ghesas-e-Nafs due to killing his child involves the father who has changed his gender. Regarding the difference between the blood-ransom for men and women, the crime’s gender at the time of enacting punishment will be taken into consideration. Concerning the enforcement of punishment for an apostate, the straitened circumstances and the accused interest will be taken as a criterion for action. The blood ransom will be paid to the plaintiff in terms of his or her gender at the time of demanding for the payment. Regarding the identification of someone’s mental soundness, the person’s new gender will be the criterion for action.