بررسی آثار واحکام نکاح موقت، مذمومیت و ممدوحیت آن با رویکرد به روایات اهل بیت(ع)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فقه و حقوق اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در ازدواج موقت، مهر و مدت باید ذکر شود؛ عدم ذکر مهر در عقد موقت موجب بطلان شده و ذکر نکردن
مدت بنابر نظر برخی موجب دائمی شدن ازدواج و به نظر عده ای دیگر باعث بطلان می شود . در این ازدواج
زوجه حق نفقه و ارث ندارد، مشهور فقها معتقدند که م یتوان با شرط ضمن عقد، نفقه را برای زن در نظر
گرفت ؛ اما در مورد توارث آراء مختلفی ابراز شده است. انحلال نکاح موقت به چند صورت واقع می شود از
جمله: انقضای مدت، بذل مدت، فسخ، انفساخ و فوت یکی از زوجین. زوجه پس از انحلال نکاح در صورت
داشتن روابط زناشویی موظف به نگهداشتن عده است. با عقد موقت زن مالک تمام مهر می شود و حق حبس
هم دارد.
ازدواج موقت اگر ه معرض ازدواج دائم قرارگیرد، خطرفروپاشی بنیاد خانواده و یا شکل نگرفتن آن م ی رود. در
روایات اهل بیت علیهم السلام ازدواج موقت برای موارد خاص توصیه شده و در برخی موارد عملی زشت و
ناپسند تلقی شده است، از جمله برای مردان زن دار و دختران باکره .

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of the Effects and Rules of Temporary Marriage, its Praiseworthiness and Blameworthiness in an Approach to Ahl al- Bayt Hadīth

نویسنده [English]

  • Fateme Mirshamsi
چکیده [English]

The rules and consequences of temporary marriage are different from
those of permanent marriage. Marriage portion and duration must be
stated in temporary marriage. Failure to state the marriage portion in
temporary marriage leads to the nullification of the contract. However,
failure to state the duration gives rise to a permanent marriage according
to some jurisprudents. Others see it as a nullifying factor of the contract.
In this type of marriage, the wife is not entitled to maintenance, nor
inheritance. Majority of jurisprudents hold that it is possible to consider
maintenance for the wife according to a proviso within the contract.
However, there are different views concerning succession. The dissolution
of temporary marriage is due to various factors including expiration of the
term, dispensing with remaining term, revocation, automatic cancellation,
and the death of one of the spouses. Following the dissolution of marriage
contract in case of having had sexual intercourse, the wife is bound to
observe a waiting term. Temporary marriage makes the wife the owner of
the whole marriage portion enjoying the right to withhold it.
If considered parallel with permanent marriage, temporary marriage
may lead to the collapse of the foundations of family or failure to form it.
Traditions of the Household of the prophet have recommended the
temporary marriage for specific cases and in certain cases have considered
it an indecent and shameful act. Wasāil al-ShīÝa devotes a chapter entitled
"the undesirability of temporary marriage" to this issue considering it
undesirable for married men and virgins. The chapter embraces 14
traditions considering temporary marriage in case of virgins and married
men an indecent and shameful act which causes humiliation of women
and daughters on the one hand, and a matter of promiscuity and laxity for
married men on the other hand.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Temporary marriage
  • wisdom behind the institution on of regulations
  • secondary rule
  • proofs of legitimacy
  • desirability and undesirability of temporary marriage
  • proviso of succession and maintenance
  • political prohibition of the Caliph